The role of extracellular vesicles in physiological and pathological conditions (literature review)




extracellular vesicles, exosomes, multivesicular bodies, micro-RNA, biomarkers


The article presents a review of medical literature on the current views on the role of extracellular vesicle ribonucleic acid (RNA) in physiological and pathological conditions.

Purpose - to highlight the current scientific knowledge about the importance of extracellular vesicles in physiological and pathological conditions, new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment.

Extracellular vesicles, in particular exosomes, have experienced a revival of interest following studies indicating their importance in numerous events of intercellular interaction. The main attention is paid to the studies that investigated the pathophysiology of microvesicles and exosomes in normal and most common diseases, diagnostic features and possibilities of application in clinical practice. In the area of reproductive medicine, there is a growing interest in understanding the role of extracellular vesicles in the male and female reproductive system, as they may represent a new mechanism of communication between the reproductive tract and immature germ cells or between the mother and fetus. This could potentially have a significant impact on the understanding of pregnancy-related processes and the development of complications. Their usefulness as biomarkers of pathological conditions such as preeclampsia, spontaneous preterm labor, and polycystic ovary syndrome is being studied.

Conclusions. The relationship between exosomal microRNAs and various diseases has been summarised. However, the use of exosomes has limitations due to technical and economic reasons. The purity of the isolated exosomes needs to be improved, which requires better technologies and equipment. The role of exosomal microRNAs in living organisms is highlighted, their value and potential use in terms of the source and mechanism of action of exosomes are demonstrated. More exosomal therapeutic agents will be used in future clinical trials, which gives hope for the emergence of new methods of diagnosis and treatment of many diseases.

No conflict of interests was declared by the authors.


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