Determination of endogenous intoxication in teenagers and young adults who smoke
Keywords:teenagers and young adults, endogenous intoxication, medium weight molecules, smoking
The harmful habit of smoking is an urgent and important socio-medical problem that has become an epidemic, including in Ukraine. It is a matter of concern that more than 500,000 young people join this bad habit every year. Today, smoking is a modified risk factor for the formation and progression of many diseases, including dental pathology among different age groups, especially among teenagers and young adults. The oral cavity is the first barrier to tobacco smoke with toxins and carcinogens that are part of it. It is known that the pathogenesis of many diseases is accompanied by a nonspecific generalized response of the organism in the form of endogenous intoxication (EI) syndrome, the severity of which may be a criterion for the severity of the pathological process and affect its course. Medium-weight molecules (MWM) are a common marker of EI in biological fluids among metabolites that can be used to assess the severity of disease. The universally accepted marker of EI in biological liquids among metabolites, which gives a possibility to assess the severity of the disease, is medium-weight molecules (MWM) - a class, which combines chemically differently structured components with a mass between 500 and 5000 Da and pronounced biologic activity.
Purpose - to determine the degree of EI in the oral fluid by the level of MWM in teenagers and young adults who smoke.
Materials and methods. It is studied the dental status of 114 teenagers and young adults aged 15 to 24 years, which was divided into groups: group I included 26 people who regularly smoke traditional cigarettes; group II - 22 people who regularly smoke electronic cigarettes (Vapes); group III - 23 people who regularly smoke tobacco heating devices (IQOS); group IV - 43 people without a bad habit of smoking. The degree of EI was determined by the rate of MWM in oral fluid by the express method according to a modified method Gabrielyan NI et al., 1984.
Results. The analyze of the rate in the oral fluid of peptide residues (MWM254) in persons of the group I was exhibited 1.4 times more than in persons of the group IV (p<0.001). There was a similar tendency in the other groups - the group I and the group II had 1.3 times more MWM254 (p<0.05) and 1.2 times more (p<0.001). There was also a difference in the nucleotide fillings (MWM280) in oral fluid of the study groups. Thus, in persons of the group I it was found MWM280 1.6 times more than in persons of the group IV (p<0.001) and 1.3 times more (p<0.05) in persons of the groups II and III respectively. The increase of nucleotide-peptide index was determined depending on the presence and type of malodorous behavior in the study participants.
Conclusions. The obtained results indicate the development of EI in teenagers and young adults who smoke, as indicated by the increase in the level of MWM in the oral fluid in the subjects, a marker of endotoxicosis. It was found that the degree of endogenous intoxication depends on the type of smoking, as well as the degree of development of the pathological process.
The research was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. The study protocol was approved by the Local Ethics Committee of the participating institution. The informed consent of the patient was obtained for conducting the studies.
No conflict of interests was declared by the authors.
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