The state of the provisional organs in the fetus with vital and lethal anomalies (literature review)


  • G.O. Grebinichenko SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.M. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
  • I.Yu. Gordienko SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.M. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
  • I.S. Luk'yanova SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.M. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
  • O.M. Dzyuba SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.M. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
  • G.F. Medvedenko SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.M. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine



prenatal diagnosis, provisional organs, placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid, vital and lethal congenital malformations, perinatal consequences, fetus


Provisional organs (placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic membranes, amniotic fluid) play a significant role during pregnancy. Their normal morpho3functional state is an important condition for normal development and well3being of the fetus, as well as for uncomplicated course of pregnancy. Congenital malformations (CM) and chromosomal abnormalities are major causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. For fetuses with malformations, dysfunction of the provisional organs (PO) can become critical and affect survival. Expert correct examination of PO during a comprehensive prenatal examination can become a diagnostic and prognostic tool for specialized management of fetuses as patients, and newborns to optimize the system of prenatal dispensary evaluation.

Literature review has shown that there are certain patterns of the PO pathology in cases of fetal abnormal development, which require changes in the tactics of prenatal observation and delivery. The variability of morphological/ultrasound changes and clinical outcomes makes it difficult to reach definite diagnosis and make correct decisions about the management of patients in specific cases. Further research is needed to optimize the protocols of ultrasound examinations and prediction of perinatal complications in the pathology of the PO in fetuses with normal and abnormal development.

No conflict of interests were declared by the authors.


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