Тhe problem of the origin and prevalence of halitosis in teenagers and young adults who smoke





adolescents, halitosis, oral hygiene, smoking


Today, halitosis is a common pathology, which ranks third among dental diseases and remains a serious medical and dental problem. Smoking due to its high prevalence and harmful effects on the health of adolescents and young people is a major problem, both in our country and abroad, due to the widespread spread of this harmful habit. The impact on the organs of the oral cavity, the development of pathological conditions, including halitosis, depends on the intensity, duration and type of smoking, as well as on individual morphofunctional features of oral tissues that are genetically determined. It is known that smoking adversely affects the biophysical properties of oral fluid, non3specific protective factors, immune responses, the condition of the oral mucosa, impairs hygiene, etc., which together leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in microbial biofilm and can cause halitosis.

Purpose — to study the prevalence of halitosis in adolescents and adolescents who smoke.

Materials and methods. Were examined, conducted a questionnaire, which included the presence of bad breath and the causes of its occurrence, determining the state of oral hygiene using the Green Vermilion index, hardware diagnostic test for halitosis with a Tanita halimmeter «Breath Alert» for 114 adolescents and young people aged 15 to 24, who were divided into groups: Group I involved 26 people who regularly smoke traditional cigarettes; to the second group — 22 people who regularly smoke electronic cigarettes (Vapi); to group III — 23 people who regularly smoke tobacco heating devices (IQOS); to group IV — 43 people without a bad habit of smoking.

Results. Analysis of oral hygiene in the respondents showed that the structure of the OHI-S index showed the worst performance in adolescents and adolescents who smoke traditional cigarettes and looked like this: in the first group of respondents found poor oral hygiene OHI-S was equal to (1.77±0.02) points. The state of hygiene of RP in adolescents and adolescents who smoke alternative cigarettes corresponded to a satisfactory level, which was confirmed by the value of the OHI-S index, respectively, in subjects of group II — (1.53±0.01) and in subjects of group III — (1.46±0.02) points. In the surveyed group IV, the state of hygiene of the RP was also satisfactory, but the index was much lower — (0.87±0.03) points. As for the registration of unpleasant odor, the hardware diagnostic test mainly revealed halitosis in persons of group I, namely in 64% of persons. In the rest of the examined halitosis was detected much less often: in persons of group II — in 12%, in persons of group III — in 8%, in persons of group IV — in 2%. It should be noted that moderate halitosis was detected only in persons of group I — 26%, mild halitosis was registered in 38%. Mild halitosis was reported in the remaining comparison groups.

Conclusions. Halitosis is an important and urgent medical and social problem, as it was found in almost half of the surveyed adolescents and young people, and was mainly found in people who regularly smoke traditional cigarettes. Most of the subjects have insufficient information about halitosis, factors of its occurrence, diagnosis, elimination.

The research was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki declaration. The study protocol was approved by the Local ethics committee of the participating institution. The informed consent of the patient was obtained for conducting the studies.

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.


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