Nutritional problems and factors of forming the health of children of the first year
Keywords:types of feeding, physical development, motor skills, morbidity, children under 1 year old
Evaluation of the type of nutrition, which is one of the important components that ensure the physical growth, development and health of a child in the first year of life, and that forms metabolic processes at an older age, has been the subject of research and discussion of domestic and foreign scientists over the past decades.
Purpose — to study the influence of the nature of feeding on the incidence and physical development of infants.
Materials and methods. During the year, 250 children (118 girls and 132 boys) of the first year of life were under observation, who received various types of feeding (breast milk and milk formulas, differing in composition). The main (I) group (n=130) included children (62 girls and 68 boys) who were breastfed; and in the comparison group — children receiving artificial feeding: in group II (n=60) (27 girls and 33 boys) received a standard mixture with a prebiotic; in group III (n=60) (29 girls and 31 boys) — a standard mixture without a prebiotic. Physical development was assessed according to the generally accepted measurement technique in terms of absolute values, monthly increases in anthropometric indicators and mass-growth indices. Outpatient records of children, protocols of examination of a 1-year-old child were studied (accounting and reporting documentation was analyzed). The criteria for inclusion in the main group of infants were: breastfeeding for at least 9 months; the age of children from up to 1 year of age. The second comparison group included children who were fed mixed with the addition of probiotic means.
Results. In girls of the second group, who were artificially fed with the addition of a probiotic — 7100.0±95.9 g, the weight gain in the first year of life was significantly higher than the weight gain of girls who received breast milk and standard formula — 6671.0±72.6 g and 6733.3±91.8 g, respectively. Despite the fact that there were no significant differences in the medians of body weight and height in children of the main group and the comparison groups, it was found that children in the main group were overweight/obese at 12 months had two or more times less indicators than children who received artificial nutrition.
Children who are breastfed began to sit independently much earlier, on average 7.6±0.05 months after birth, and children of the other two groups who are bottle-fed, on average, 8.0±0.13 and 8.1±0.12 months, respectively (p<0.05). When studying the structure of the most common diseases of children in the first year of life, depending on the type of feeding, it was revealed that the greatest percentage both in group I (group) and in group II (claim) are children with acute intestinal infections — in group I (group 1)) group in 7.7±2.34% of children, in subgroup II (claim) in 11.7±2.93% of children (p=0.3905).
Conclusions. The results obtained indicate a positive effect of breastfeeding on anthropometric indicators and the formation of basic skills in young children. The incidence of infectious diseases (ARI and OCI) revealed in children who received breast milk, compared with children who are bottle-fed, indicates that breastfeeding has the ability to create conditions for reducing the incidence of diseases in young children.
The research was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki declaration. The study protocol was approved by the Local ethics committee of all participating institution. The informed consent of the patient was obtained for conducting the studies.
No conflict of interest was declared by the author.
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